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The Power of Photojournalism in War

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By Jason Etzel

In 1832 Senator William Learned Marcy spoke the phrase, “To the victor belong the spoils.” Although first spoken (or at least documented) this was not a new concept by any means for those who won a battle of any kind. With a victory you could design how it would be viewed to those alive [at the time] as well future generations who would read and learn what you left behind as history of this battle. This meant that selective editing could always be done by the victor, filtering words, omitting particular events or details, artistic renderings showing how they wanted the victory to be recorded.

And in 1832 this was still true, until technology changed how history would be written—by both those who triumphed and those who felt defeat—by the invention of the camera, it would now be seen unchanged. In the world we live in today, doctored images are common knowledge, we know now what is seen may or may not have been really there. For hundreds of years historical figures were seen only as their statues or oil painted portraits perceived them to be. Battles were drawn showing honor and courage without really showing tragedy, violence, or loss.

In 1839 when the camera was first shown to the public, everything became real and an instrument in the field of journalism. The first war images are credited to an anonymous American who took a number of daguerreotypes during the Mexican-American war in 1847, and for the first time the face of the soldier was seen. The first known war photographer was Carol Popp de Szathmari who took photos of various officers in 1853 and landscapes where battle took place in 1854 during the Crimean War. However it was in 1861 that a portrait photographer in New York City named Mathew Brady changed the world of photography and journalism as we know it.

Having mastered the new art of photography from his time studying under the skilled daguerreotypist Samuel Morse, Brady had a thriving portrait photography studio. His subjects included numerous historical figures including past and then present Presidents of the United States of America. When the first shots were fired of the American Civil War in 1861, and against the wishes of friends and family, Brady put the essentials of his studio into a wagon and made his way to the battlefield at Bull Run. At Bull Run Brady took images of the war-torn landscape of destroyed buildings and bridges as well as the dead littering the countryside.

At times he was so close he was nearly captured by the Confederate soldiers. This was not a commissioned painting, nor an article being written for a newspaper, to be released to the public. These were images being taken, processed, and printed from where it all happened and they spoke louder than any cannon fired during any war. Through the course of the Civil War, Mathew Brady and his team of photographers captured the bloodiest battles as well as the faces of the men who fought on both sides.

War was no longer a distant battlefield; it was piles of dead soldiers and a country tearing itself apart. Many feared on both sides that the images showing war would cause both an escalation to stop or continue the war. Photography became a weapon itself, as many photos were staged with bodies moved into positions to manipulate public perception of battles.

As the years passed so did the purposes of photography and war. It was used for reconnaissance, intimidation showing strength of arms and new weaponry, and even to confirm the deaths of famous figures such as Dale Titler’s photograph of the downed plane of the WWI German Ace Manfred von Richtofen more commonly known as “The Red Baron” to discourage the German people and lower moral.

The chaos and confusion of battle was illustrated to the world with Robert Capa’s images from the landing at Normandy for the D-Day invasion of Europe. Joe Rosenthal’s “Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima” and Alfred Eisenstaedt’s “V-J day in Times Square” have also become timeless images showing triumph and victory on distant shores as well as at home.

During the war in Vietnam, newspaper correspondent and columnist Joseph Galloway often fought alongside the troops he covered with his cameras, documenting the conflict around him.

Perhaps one of the most famous images of the century came from Eddie Adams with his portrait of an execution of a prisoner of war in 1968. It led to not only a Pulitzer Prize for Adams, but many claimed it changed the balance and political opinions of the war in Vietnam.

Nearly 150 years after Mathew Brady set out to capture the American Civil War, photojournalism still continues to advance, educate, and at times manipulate conflicts worldwide. Just as Andrew Jackson used paintings and monuments to tell stories of victory and triumph, leaders today use the press in all of it’s forms—particularly photography—to show the frozen moments in time that they want remembered.

Sometimes they can immortalize a great achievement and cement your place in history, however it can also backfire as President George W. Bush found out in 2003. By flooding the media with images of him on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln with a banner reading: “Mission Accomplished” many would believe the war ended that day in the Fall of 2003, however the conflict remains and now the banner is a mere punch line for a joke, and a large part of his presidential legacy.

Today’s media is no longer limited to just words, images, and video but also can include computer graphic based animations and renderings. For most, the portrait of Barack Obama altered by Shepard Fairey is considered a sign of change, others saw it as a violation of a law on the copyright of AP photographs. All the same it became part of everyday culture and awareness around the world.

The photojournalists are the eyes and the ears for the world. On this Veteran’s Day, it is important to remember and be grateful for those people who have been the eyes and the ears for us all—and the sacrifices they made to do so.

♦ Jason Etzel is a working photographer who is well respected in the photographic industry today. For 15 years he has worked for companies such as Unique Photo, B&H, and Dyna-Lite, providing sales, education, and research development of photographic products. In addition, he is also a frequent contributor to photographic publications such as Photo Insider and other photographic blogs. Even though he is based out of New Jersey, Jason is frequently seen from coast to coast at photographic events discussing the history of photography, where it is today, and where he hopes it is going tomorrow. Look for future articles by contributor Jason Etzel on Picture-soup.com.

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Why Photographers Need to Stay in School

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I want to quote part of an article entitled Education Never Stops by Skip Cohen, president of Marketing Essentials International, that was printed in the June 2009 issue of Rangefinder Magazine.

“‘Years ago at a Nick Vedros seminar, I sat down next to Don Blair, who was 71 years old at the time and still recognized as one of the leading portrait photographers in America. I was shocked to notice Don feverishly taking notes on some of Nick’s lighting techniques. ‘Don’t you know this stuff already?’ I teased. ‘Are you kidding?’ he said, ‘This guy is giving me a ton of new ideas!’”

Wow. I knew what a wonderful teacher, mentor, and inspiration “Big Daddy”♦ a.k.a. Don Blair has been to hundreds, probably thousands of photographers in his career but I hadn’t assumed he attended the classes given by others. I figured, when you got to the pinnacle of your career you never looked back. I was wrong.

What amazes me then, is, if such a photographic icon as Don Blair realized at the age of 71 that he would benefit by continuing his education—then why don’t pros half his age (at that time) realize this?

I can’t tell you how many photographers I’ve met who think they know it all, who think there’s nothing left for them to learn, who think themselves above their peers.

Till the day you die, you’ll find yourself presented with new things you never knew before—business and marketing tips, capture and post production techniques. Only you can decide you want to refine your vision, re-craft your techniques, renew your enthusiasm for photography—by educating yourself. Whether it’s self-exploration or seminars and workshops—even opening a book and trying what you’ve read—all of these things can and will lead you to become a better photographer or a better businessman or woman.

There are a wonderful myriad of educational opportunities… just look at some that I’ve come across:

  • Long Island Photo Workshop – August 3-6, 2009 – Smithtown, NY – Instructors are Vincent Versace, Dave Black, Gary Small, Fay Sirkis, Janice Wendt, and Hanson Fong – www.liphotoworkshop.com.
  • Skip’s Summer School – August 16-19, 2009 – Las Vegas, NV – Instructors are Bambi Cantrell, Skip Cohen, Tony Corbell, Ron Dawson, Robert Evans, Jim Garner, Jerry Gihonis, Mitche Graf, Matt Hill, Kevin Kubota, Charles and Jennifer Maring, Dane Sanders, and Ken Sklute – www.mei500.com.
  • There are dozens of PPA affiliated workshops and one day seminars offered throughout the year. Check the website at www.ppa.com for more.
  • Renegade Photo Shoots are unique and different Photo Edu-Experiences. Recent Renegade Shoots earlier this year included City Shoots, Shoot with the Stars, Sip and Shoot – look for more events to be announced soon –  www.renegade-pr.com
  • Like to fly? Check this one out – September 27-30, 2009 – Half Moon Bay, CA – Instructors are Dirk Karsten and Chris Golson – A photo workshop set in the San Francisco Bay Area that will include a photo shoot aboard a Zeppelin in flight and trekking through an ancient cedar forest – www.chrisgolson.com/workshop
  • Sandy (Sam) Puc’ leads many workshops during the year – check her website for dates and locations – http://samspros.com
  • Eddie Tapp – Workshop in Iceland – August 16-22, 2009 – Check the website for other seminars and workshops as well – www.eddietapp.com
  • Antartica with Art Wolfe – Nov. 30-Dec. 10, 2010 – Check the website for other workshops as well – www.artwolfe.com
  • Santa Fe Workshops www.santafeworkshops.com
  • Palm Beach Photographic Workshops – www.workshop.org 
  • Lepp Institue Workshops – www.leppphoto.com 
  • Maine Media Workshops – multiple dates throughout the year – www.theworkshops.com
  • Barnstorm – Eddie Adams Workshop – Oct. 9-12, 2009 – (portfolio review required to be selected to attend)www.eddieadamsworkshop.com
  • National Geographic Photography Expeditions – offered throughout the year – check website for locations around the world and dates – www.nationalgeographicexpeditions.com/triptypes/photography

Tradeshows that also offer educational sessions:

  • PhotoPlus Expo – October 22-24, 2009– NY, NY – www.photoplusexpo.com
  • WPPI – Mar. 4-11, 2010 – Las Vegas, NV – www.wppionline.com; and this year WPPI goes on the road to four cities throughout 2009. Check the website for exact dates.
  • Imaging USA – Jan. 10-12, 2010 – Nashville, TN – www.imagingusa.org
  • PMA – Feb. 21-23, 2010 – Anaheim, CA – www.pmai.org

Can’t afford to travel? Webinars allow you to sit at your computer and learn. Most are Free. Webinars include:

  • Webinar Wednesdays (as of this writing, dates are set for the summer) – Kevin Kubota – www.kubotaimagetools.com/webinar_schedule.html
  • The Bogen Café series of free webinars cover a variety of photographic topics. An upcoming webinar is Adventure Sports Photography: Round Table with Adventure Photographer Michael Clark – Friday, July 17, 2009, 2- 3pm EDT – www.bogenimaging.us/webinar/
  • Artistry Webinars with Corel Painter Master Karen Sperling where you learn how to turn photos into paintings using Adobe Photoshop and Corel Painter – www.artistrymag.com

This is just the tip of the iceberg. My point is, whatever your photographic niche, educational opportunities abound. Open your eyes and mind and your experiences will last long after these events are over.

— Diane Berkenfeld

♦ Big Daddy was the nickname that Don Blair, who passed away a few years ago, had. He will be fondly remembered by all those, including myself, who knew and learned from him.

Documentary Film Review: An Unlikely Weapon

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Acclaimed film chronicles the life and career

of Poster art work © Eddie Adams/Morgan Cooper Productionsphotojournalist Eddie Adams

by Diane Berkenfeld

For those who are enamored of everything photography, check out the acclaimed documentary film—An Unlikely Weapon—The Eddie Adams Story. The documentary film is directed and produced by Susan Morgan Cooper, with cinematography and editing by Isaac Hagy. Cindy Lou Adkins, Eddie Adams’ sister-in-law co-produced the documentary. The film documents Eddie Adams’ life and how one photograph—some say the one photograph that ended the Vietnam war—changed his life forever.

You may have been too young to remember the news footage of the Vietnam war, but you’ve likely seen Adams’ photo, taken in 1968 of Saigon Police Chief General Nguyen Ngoc Loan shooting a Vietcong Guerilla at point blank range. Along with fame, and a Pulitzer Prize, that image haunted Eddie Adams for the rest of his life. “Two lives were destroyed that day, the victim’s and the General,” Adams often said. Others would say three lives were destroyed.

 

Saigon execution © Eddie Adams/AP Photo

Saigon execution © Eddie Adams/AP Photo

Adams’ career spanned 13 wars, as well as forays into commercial and beauty photography because he’d gotten to the point in his life where he felt he had to find a different photographic avenue to pursue. Adams found photographing celebrities was much easier on his psyche. His images graced the covers of Time, Life, Parade Magazine, and even Penthouse. He is also known for having captured the images of six presidents and every major film star of the last 50 years. An Unlikely Weapon tells the story, not only of Adams’ famous image, but of the photographer—how he worked, why he did what he did—as raw and crass as the man himself was. Adams was a perfectionist, and throughout the documentary, he explains in his own words why he felt he never attained it. But don’t let his manner of speaking fool you—Adams was a great photographer, well admired and respected for what he did during his lifetime, more so than he probably ever thought of himself. The film gives the viewer a unique view into the life and career of a fascinating photographer. An Unlikely Weapon is a wonderful film that should not be missed.

The viewer is brought back to the Vietnam war by Adams’ reminiscing as well as storytelling by journalists including Tom Brokaw, Peter Jennings, Morely Safer, and fellow photographers: Douglas Kirkland, Nick Ut, Jay Maisel, Bill Eppridge, Gordon Parks, and Former President Bill Clinton, actor Alec Baldwin, General Nygoc Loan, and others. The film is narrated by Kiefer Sutherland.

The documentary has won numerous accolades and awards from film festivals around the world.

In addition to the many images he created, Eddie Adams also left the photographic world Barnstorm, the Eddie Adams Workshop, (www.eddieadamsworkshop.com) a tuition-free photography experience that spans four days. Barnstorm gathers top photography professionals and 100 carefully selected students each fall for an amazing learning experience. 

The film is being screened in select theatres around the country. Check out the website at www.anunlikelyweapon.com for locations/dates or more information.

 THIS SUMMER, AN UNLIKELY WEAPON WILL BE SCREENED IN DENVER, LOS ANGELES, CHICAGO, AND PALM SPRINGS. CHECK www.anunlikelyweapon.com FOR DATES AND TIMES.